FHS :: Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

更新日期:2020年09月11日
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Filesystem Hierarchy Standard

LSB Workgroup, The Linux Foundation

   Version 3.0

   Copyright © 2015 The Linux Foundation

   Copyright © 1994-2004 Daniel Quinlan

   Copyright © 2001-2004 Paul 'Rusty' Russell

   Copyright © 2003-2004 Christopher Yeoh

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   should not be regarded as affecting the validity of any
   trademark or service mark.

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   are preserved on all copies.

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   this standard into another language, under the above conditions
   for modified versions, except that this permission notice may
   be stated in a translation approved by the copyright holder.

   March 19, 2015

   Abstract

   This standard consists of a set of requirements and guidelines
   for file and directory placement under UNIX-like operating
   systems. The guidelines are intended to support
   interoperability of applications, system administration tools,
   development tools, and scripts as well as greater uniformity of
   documentation for these systems.
     __________________________________________________________

Dedication

   This release is dedicated to the memory of Christopher Yeoh, a
   long-time friend and colleague, and one of the original editors
   of the FHS. Without his dedication this work would not have
   been possible.

   Table of Contents

   1. Introduction

        1.1. Purpose
        1.2. Conventions

   2. The Filesystem
   3. The Root Filesystem

        3.1. Purpose
        3.2. Requirements
        3.3. Specific Options
        3.4. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by
                all users)

              3.4.1. Purpose
              3.4.2. Requirements
              3.4.3. Specific Options

        3.5. /boot : Static files of the boot loader

              3.5.1. Purpose
              3.5.2. Specific Options

        3.6. /dev : Device files

              3.6.1. Purpose
              3.6.2. Specific Options

        3.7. /etc : Host-specific system configuration

              3.7.1. Purpose
              3.7.2. Requirements
              3.7.3. Specific Options
              3.7.4. /etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt
              3.7.5. /etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window
                      System (optional)

              3.7.6. /etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML
                      (optional)

              3.7.7. /etc/xml : Configuration files for XML
                      (optional)

        3.8. /home : User home directories (optional)

              3.8.1. Purpose
              3.8.2. Requirements
              3.8.3. Home Directory Specifications and Conventions

        3.9. /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

              3.9.1. Purpose
              3.9.2. Requirements
              3.9.3. Specific Options

        3.10. /lib<qual> : Alternate format essential shared
                libraries (optional)

              3.10.1. Purpose
              3.10.2. Requirements

        3.11. /media : Mount point for removable media

              3.11.1. Purpose
              3.11.2. Specific Options

        3.12. /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted
                filesystem

              3.12.1. Purpose

        3.13. /opt : Add-on application software packages

              3.13.1. Purpose
              3.13.2. Requirements

        3.14. /root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

              3.14.1. Purpose

        3.15. /run : Run-time variable data

              3.15.1. Purpose
              3.15.2. Requirements

        3.16. /sbin : System binaries

              3.16.1. Purpose
              3.16.2. Requirements
              3.16.3. Specific Options

        3.17. /srv : Data for services provided by this system

              3.17.1. Purpose

        3.18. /tmp : Temporary files

              3.18.1. Purpose

   4. The /usr Hierarchy

        4.1. Purpose
        4.2. Requirements
        4.3. Specific Options
        4.4. /usr/bin : Most user commands

              4.4.1. Purpose
              4.4.2. Requirements
              4.4.3. Specific Options

        4.5. /usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

              4.5.1. Purpose
              4.5.2. Specific Options

        4.6. /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

              4.6.1. Purpose
              4.6.2. Specific Options

        4.7. /usr/libexec : Binaries run by other programs
                (optional)

              4.7.1. Purpose

        4.8. /usr/lib<qual> : Alternate format libraries
                (optional)

              4.8.1. Purpose

        4.9. /usr/local : Local hierarchy

              4.9.1. Purpose
              4.9.2. Requirements
              4.9.3. Specific Options
              4.9.4. /usr/local/share : Local
                      architecture-independent hierarchy

        4.10. /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

              4.10.1. Purpose
              4.10.2. Requirements

        4.11. /usr/share : Architecture-independent data

              4.11.1. Purpose
              4.11.2. Requirements
              4.11.3. Specific Options
              4.11.4. /usr/share/color : Color management
                      information (optional)

              4.11.5. /usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)
              4.11.6. /usr/share/man : Manual pages
              4.11.7. /usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous
                      architecture-independent data

              4.11.8. /usr/share/ppd : Printer definitions
                      (optional)

              4.11.9. /usr/share/sgml : SGML data (optional)
              4.11.10. /usr/share/xml : XML data (optional)

        4.12. /usr/src : Source code (optional)

              4.12.1. Purpose

   5. The /var Hierarchy

        5.1. Purpose
        5.2. Requirements
        5.3. Specific Options
        5.4. /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

              5.4.1. Purpose

        5.5. /var/cache : Application cache data

              5.5.1. Purpose
              5.5.2. Specific Options
              5.5.3. /var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts
                      (optional)

              5.5.4. /var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual
                      pages (optional)

        5.6. /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

              5.6.1. Purpose

        5.7. /var/games : Variable game data (optional)

              5.7.1. Purpose

        5.8. /var/lib : Variable state information

              5.8.1. Purpose
              5.8.2. Requirements
              5.8.3. Specific Options
              5.8.4. /var/lib/<editor> : Editor backup files and
                      state (optional)

              5.8.5. /var/lib/color : Color management information
                      (optional)

              5.8.6. /var/lib/hwclock : State directory for
                      hwclock (optional)

              5.8.7. /var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

        5.9. /var/lock : Lock files

              5.9.1. Purpose

        5.10. /var/log : Log files and directories

              5.10.1. Purpose
              5.10.2. Specific Options

        5.11. /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

              5.11.1. Purpose

        5.12. /var/opt : Variable data for /opt

              5.12.1. Purpose

        5.13. /var/run : Run-time variable data

              5.13.1. Purpose
              5.13.2. Requirements

        5.14. /var/spool : Application spool data

              5.14.1. Purpose
              5.14.2. Specific Options
              5.14.3. /var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print
                      queues (optional)

              5.14.4. /var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)

        5.15. /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system
                reboots

              5.15.1. Purpose

        5.16. /var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database
                files (optional)

              5.16.1. Purpose

   6. Operating System Specific Annex

        6.1. Linux

              6.1.1. / : Root directory
              6.1.2. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for
                      use by all users)

              6.1.3. /dev : Devices and special files
              6.1.4. /etc : Host-specific system configuration
              6.1.5. /proc : Kernel and process information virtual filesystem

              6.1.6. /sbin : Essential system binaries
              6.1.7. /sys : Kernel and system information virtual filesystem

              6.1.8. /usr/include : Header files included by C
                      programs

              6.1.9. /usr/src : Source code
              6.1.10. /var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs

   7. Appendix

        7.1. The FHS mailing list
        7.2. Background of the FHS
        7.3. General Guidelines
        7.4. Scope
        7.5. Acknowledgments
        7.6. Contributors

Chapter 1. Introduction


   Table of Contents

   1.1. Purpose
   1.2. Conventions

1.1. Purpose

   This standard enables:
     * Software to predict the location of installed files and
       directories, and
     * Users to predict the location of installed files and
       directories.

   We do this by:
     * Specifying guiding principles for each area of the
       filesystem,
     * Specifying the minimum files and directories required,
     * Enumerating exceptions to the principles, and
     * Enumerating specific cases where there has been historical
       conflict.

   The FHS document is used by:
     * Independent software suppliers to create applications which
       are FHS compliant, and work with distributions which are
       FHS compliant,
     * OS creators to provide systems which are FHS compliant, and
     * Users to understand and maintain the FHS compliance of a
       system.

   The FHS document has a limited scope:
     * Local placement of local files is a local issue, so FHS
       does not attempt to usurp system administrators.
     * FHS addresses issues where file placements need to be
       coordinated between multiple parties such as local sites,
       distributions, applications, documentation, etc.

1.2. Conventions

   We recommend that you read a typeset version of this document
   rather than the plain text version. In the typeset version, the
   names of files and directories are displayed in a
   constant-width font.

   Components of filenames that vary are represented by a
   description of the contents enclosed in "<" and ">" characters,
   <thus>. Electronic mail addresses are also enclosed in "<" and
   ">" but are shown in the usual typeface.

   Optional components of filenames are enclosed in "[" and "]"
   characters and may be combined with the "<" and ">" convention.
   For example, if a filename is allowed to occur either with or
   without an extension, it might be represented by
   <filename>[.<extension>].

   Variable substrings of directory names and filenames are
   indicated by "*".

   The sections of the text marked as Rationale are explanatory
   and are non-normative.

Chapter 2. The Filesystem


   This standard assumes that the operating system underlying an
   FHS-compliant file system supports the same basic security
   features found in most UNIX filesystems.

   It is possible to define two independent distinctions among
   files: shareable vs. unshareable and variable vs. static. In
   general, files that differ in either of these respects should
   be located in different directories. This makes it easy to
   store files with different usage characteristics on different
   filesystems.

   "Shareable" files are those that can be stored on one host and
   used on others. "Unshareable" files are those that are not
   shareable. For example, the files in user home directories are
   shareable whereas device lock files are not.

   "Static" files include binaries, libraries, documentation files
   and other files that do not change without system administrator
   intervention. "Variable" files are files that are not static.

Rationale

   Shareable files can be stored on one host and used on several
   others. Typically, however, not all files in the filesystem
   hierarchy are shareable and so each system has local storage
   containing at least its unshareable files. It is convenient if
   all the files a system requires that are stored on a foreign
   host can be made available by mounting one or a few directories
   from the foreign host.

   Static and variable files should be segregated because static
   files, unlike variable files, can be stored on read-only media
   and do not need to be backed up on the same schedule as
   variable files.

   Historical UNIX-like filesystem hierarchies contained both
   static and variable files under both /usr and /etc. In order to
   realize the advantages mentioned above, the /var hierarchy was
   created and all variable files were transferred from /usr to
   /var. Consequently /usr can now be mounted read-only (if it is
   a separate filesystem). Variable files have been transferred
   from /etc to /var over a longer period as technology has
   permitted.

   Here is an example of a FHS-compliant system. (Other
   FHS-compliant layouts are possible.)
            shareable       unshareable
   static   /usr            /etc
            /opt            /boot
   variable /var/mail       /var/run
            /var/spool/news /var/lock

Chapter 3. The Root Filesystem


   Table of Contents

   3.1. Purpose
   3.2. Requirements
   3.3. Specific Options
   3.4. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all
          users)

        3.4.1. Purpose
        3.4.2. Requirements
        3.4.3. Specific Options

   3.5. /boot : Static files of the boot loader

        3.5.1. Purpose
        3.5.2. Specific Options

   3.6. /dev : Device files

        3.6.1. Purpose
        3.6.2. Specific Options

   3.7. /etc : Host-specific system configuration

        3.7.1. Purpose
        3.7.2. Requirements
        3.7.3. Specific Options
        3.7.4. /etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt
        3.7.5. /etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window System
                (optional)

        3.7.6. /etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML (optional)
        3.7.7. /etc/xml : Configuration files for XML (optional)

   3.8. /home : User home directories (optional)

        3.8.1. Purpose
        3.8.2. Requirements
        3.8.3. Home Directory Specifications and Conventions

   3.9. /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

        3.9.1. Purpose
        3.9.2. Requirements
        3.9.3. Specific Options

   3.10. /lib<qual> : Alternate format essential shared libraries
          (optional)

        3.10.1. Purpose
        3.10.2. Requirements

   3.11. /media : Mount point for removable media

        3.11.1. Purpose
        3.11.2. Specific Options

   3.12. /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem

        3.12.1. Purpose

   3.13. /opt : Add-on application software packages

        3.13.1. Purpose
        3.13.2. Requirements

   3.14. /root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

        3.14.1. Purpose

   3.15. /run : Run-time variable data

        3.15.1. Purpose
        3.15.2. Requirements

   3.16. /sbin : System binaries

        3.16.1. Purpose
        3.16.2. Requirements
        3.16.3. Specific Options

   3.17. /srv : Data for services provided by this system

        3.17.1. Purpose

   3.18. /tmp : Temporary files

        3.18.1. Purpose

3.1. Purpose

   The contents of the root filesystem must be adequate to boot,
   restore, recover, and/or repair the system.
     * To boot a system, enough software and data must be present
       on the root partition to mount other filesystems. This
       includes utilities, configuration, boot loader information,
       and other essential start-up data. /usr, /opt, and /var are
       designed such that they may be located on other partitions
       or filesystems.
     * To enable recovery and/or repair of a system, those
       utilities needed by an experienced maintainer to diagnose
       and reconstruct a damaged system must be present on the
       root filesystem.
     * To restore a system, those utilities needed to restore from
       system backups (on floppy, tape, etc.) must be present on
       the root filesystem.

Rationale

   The minimum requirements for the root filesystem should be as
   small as reasonably possible, but no smaller. While many users
   may not want the extra complexity of a partitioned system, the
   option to keep the root small should be preserved for several
   reasons:
     * It is occasionally mounted from very small media.
     * The root filesystem contains many system-specific
       configuration files. Possible examples include a kernel
       that is specific to the system, a specific hostname, etc.
       This means that the root filesystem isn't always shareable
       between networked systems. Keeping it small on servers in
       networked systems minimizes the amount of lost space for
       areas of unshareable files. It also allows workstations
       with smaller local hard drives.
     * While you may have the root filesystem on a large
       partition, and may be able to fill it to your heart's
       content, there will be people with smaller partitions. If
       you have more files installed, you may find
       incompatibilities with other systems using root filesystems
       on smaller partitions. If you are a developer then you may
       be turning your assumption into a problem for a large
       number of users.
     * Disk errors that corrupt data on the root filesystem are a
       greater problem than errors on any other partition. A small
       root filesystem is less prone to corruption as the result
       of a system crash.

   These considerations must be balanced against the need for a
   minimally useful operating environment, for the sake of the
   boot process as well as in failure recovery situations.

   Applications must never create or require special files or
   subdirectories in the root directory. Other locations in the
   FHS hierarchy provide more than enough flexibility for any
   package.

Rationale

   There are several reasons why creating a new subdirectory of
   the root filesystem is prohibited:
     * It demands space on a root partition which the system
       administrator may want kept small and simple for either
       performance or security reasons.
     * It evades whatever discipline the system administrator may
       have set up for distributing standard file hierarchies
       across mountable volumes.

   Distributions should not create new directories in the root
   hierarchy without extremely careful consideration of the
   consequences including for application portability.

3.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   are required in /.
   Directory Description
   bin       Essential command binaries
   boot      Static files of the boot loader
   dev       Device files
   etc       Host-specific system configuration
   lib       Essential shared libraries and kernel modules
   media     Mount point for removable media
   mnt       Mount point for mounting a filesystem temporarily
   opt       Add-on application software packages
   run       Data relevant to running processes
   sbin      Essential system binaries
   srv       Data for services provided by this system
   tmp       Temporary files
   usr       Secondary hierarchy
   var       Variable data

   Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate
   subsections below. /usr and /var each has a complete section in
   this document due to the complexity of those directories.

3.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory Description
   home User home directories (optional)
   lib<qual> Alternate format essential shared libraries
   (optional)
   root Home directory for the root user (optional)

   Each directory listed above is specified in detail in separate
   subsections below.

3.4. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)

3.4.1. Purpose

   /bin contains commands that may be used by both the system
   administrator and by users, but which are required when no
   other filesystems are mounted (e.g. in single user mode). It
   may also contain commands which are used indirectly by scripts.
   ^[1]

3.4.2. Requirements

   There must be no subdirectories in /bin.

   The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are
   required in /bin:
   Command  Description
   cat      Utility to concatenate files to standard output
   chgrp    Utility to change file group ownership
   chmod    Utility to change file access permissions
   chown    Utility to change file owner and group
   cp       Utility to copy files and directories
   date     Utility to print or set the system data and time
   dd       Utility to convert and copy a file
   df       Utility to report filesystem disk space usage
   dmesg    Utility to print or control the kernel message buffer
   echo     Utility to display a line of text
   false    Utility to do nothing, unsuccessfully
   hostname Utility to show or set the system's host name
   kill     Utility to send signals to processes
   ln       Utility to make links between files
   login    Utility to begin a session on the system
   ls       Utility to list directory contents
   mkdir    Utility to make directories
   mknod    Utility to make block or character special files
   more     Utility to page through text
   mount    Utility to mount a filesystem
   mv       Utility to move/rename files
   ps       Utility to report process status
   pwd      Utility to print name of current working directory
   rm       Utility to remove files or directories
   rmdir    Utility to remove empty directories
   sed      The `sed' stream editor
   sh       POSIX compatible command shell
   stty     Utility to change and print terminal line settings
   su       Utility to change user ID
   sync     Utility to flush filesystem buffers
   true     Utility to do nothing, successfully
   umount   Utility to unmount file systems
   uname    Utility to print system information

   If /bin/sh is not the POSIX compatible shell command itself, it
   must be a hard or symbolic link to the real shell command.

   The [ and test commands must be placed together in either /bin
   or /usr/bin.

Rationale

   Various shells behave differently when called as sh, so as to
   preserve POSIX compatibility while allowing changes or
   extensions to POSIX when desired.

   The requirement for the [ and test commands to be included as
   binaries (even if implemented internally by the shell) is
   shared with the POSIX.1-2008 standard.

3.4.3. Specific Options

   The following programs, or symbolic links to programs, must be
   in /bin if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Command Description
   csh     The C shell (optional)
   ed      The `ed' editor (optional)
   tar     The tar archiving utility (optional)
   cpio    The cpio archiving utility (optional)
   gzip    The GNU compression utility (optional)
   gunzip  The GNU uncompression utility (optional)
   zcat    The GNU uncompression utility (optional)
   netstat The network statistics utility (optional)
   ping    The ICMP network test utility (optional)

   /bin/csh may be a symbolic link to /bin/tcsh or /usr/bin/tcsh.

Rationale

   The tar, gzip and cpio commands have been added to make
   restoration of a system possible (provided that / is intact).

   Conversely, if no restoration from the root partition is ever
   expected, then these binaries might be omitted (e.g., a ROM
   chip root, mounting /usr through NFS). If restoration of a
   system is planned through the network, then ftp or tftp (along
   with everything necessary to get an ftp connection) must be
   available on the root partition.

3.5. /boot : Static files of the boot loader

3.5.1. Purpose

   This directory contains everything required for the boot
   process except configuration files not needed at boot time and
   the map installer. Thus /boot stores data that is used before
   the kernel begins executing user-mode programs. This may
   include saved master boot sectors and sector map files.

   Programs necessary to arrange for the boot loader to be able to
   boot a file must be placed in /sbin. Configuration files for
   boot loaders that are not required at boot time must be placed
   in /etc.

3.5.2. Specific Options

   The operating system kernel must be located in either / or
   /boot.

   Certain architectures may have other requirements for /boot
   related to limitations or expectations specific to that
   architecture. These requirements are not enumerated here;
   distributions are allowed to add requirements as needed to
   enable system startup on these architectures.

3.6. /dev : Device files

3.6.1. Purpose

   The /dev directory is the location of special or device files.

3.6.2. Specific Options

   If it is possible that devices in /dev will need to be manually
   created, /dev must contain a command named MAKEDEV, which can
   create devices as needed. It may also contain a MAKEDEV.local
   for any local devices.

   If required, MAKEDEV must have provisions for creating any
   device that may be found on the system, not just those that a
   particular distribution installs.

3.7. /etc : Host-specific system configuration

3.7.1. Purpose

   The /etc hierarchy contains configuration files. A
   "configuration file" is a local file used to control the
   operation of a program; it must be static and cannot be an
   executable binary. ^[2]

   It is recommended that files be stored in subdirectories of
   /etc rather than directly in /etc.

3.7.2. Requirements

   No binaries may be located under /etc.

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories are
   required in /etc:
   Directory Description
   opt       Configuration for /opt

3.7.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories
   must be in /etc, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory Description
   X11       Configuration for the X Window system (optional)
   sgml      Configuration for SGML (optional)
   xml       Configuration for XML (optional)

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /etc if the corresponding subsystem is installed: ^[3]
   File Description
   csh.login Systemwide initialization file for C shell logins
   (optional)
   exports NFS filesystem access control list (optional)
   fstab Static information about filesystems (optional)
   ftpusers FTP daemon user access control list (optional)
   gateways File which lists gateways for routed (optional)
   gettydefs Speed and terminal settings used by getty (optional)
   group User group file (optional)
   host.conf Resolver configuration file (optional)
   hosts Static information about host names (optional)
   hosts.allow Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)
   hosts.deny Host access file for TCP wrappers (optional)
   hosts.equiv List of trusted hosts for rlogin, rsh, rcp
   (optional)
   hosts.lpd List of trusted hosts for lpd (optional)
   inetd.conf Configuration file for inetd (optional)
   inittab Configuration file for init (optional)
   issue Pre-login message and identification file (optional)
   ld.so.conf List of extra directories to search for shared
   libraries (optional)
   motd Post-login message of the day file (optional)
   mtab Dynamic information about filesystems (optional)
   mtools.conf Configuration file for mtools (optional)
   networks Static information about network names (optional)
   passwd The password file (optional)
   printcap The lpd printer capability database (optional)
   profile Systemwide initialization file for sh shell logins
   (optional)
   protocols IP protocol listing (optional)
   resolv.conf Resolver configuration file (optional)
   rpc RPC protocol listing (optional)
   securetty TTY access control for root login (optional)
   services Port names for network services (optional)
   shells Pathnames of valid login shells (optional)
   syslog.conf Configuration file for syslogd (optional)

   mtab does not fit the static nature of /etc: it is excepted for
   historical reasons. ^[4]

3.7.4. /etc/opt : Configuration files for /opt

3.7.4.1. Purpose

   Host-specific configuration files for add-on application
   software packages must be installed within the directory
   /etc/opt/<subdir>, where <subdir> is the name of the subtree in
   /opt where the static data from that package is stored.

3.7.4.2. Requirements

   No structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of
   /etc/opt/<subdir>.

   If a configuration file must reside in a different location in
   order for the package or system to function properly, it may be
   placed in a location other than /etc/opt/<subdir>.

Rationale

   Refer to the rationale for /opt.

3.7.5. /etc/X11 : Configuration for the X Window System (optional)

3.7.5.1. Purpose

   /etc/X11 is the location for all X11 host-specific
   configuration. This directory is necessary to allow local
   control if /usr is mounted read only.

3.7.5.2. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /etc/X11 if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   File Description
   xorg.conf The configuration file for X.org versions 7 and later
   (optional)
   Xmodmap Global X11 keyboard modification file (optional)

   Subdirectories of /etc/X11 may include those for xdm and for
   any other programs (some window managers, for example) that
   need them. ^[5]

3.7.6. /etc/sgml : Configuration files for SGML (optional)

3.7.6.1. Purpose

   Generic configuration files defining high-level parameters of
   the SGML systems are installed here. Files with names *.conf
   indicate generic configuration files. File with names *.cat are
   the DTD-specific centralized catalogs, containing references to
   all other catalogs needed to use the given DTD. The super
   catalog file catalog references all the centralized catalogs.

3.7.7. /etc/xml : Configuration files for XML (optional)

3.7.7.1. Purpose

   Generic configuration files defining high-level parameters of
   the XML systems are installed here. Files with names *.conf
   indicate generic configuration files. The super catalog file
   catalog references all the centralized catalogs.

3.8. /home : User home directories (optional)

3.8.1. Purpose

   /home is a fairly standard concept, but it is clearly a
   site-specific filesystem. ^[6] The setup will differ from host
   to host. Therefore, no program should assume any specific
   location for a home directory, rather it should query for it.
   ^[7]

3.8.2. Requirements

   User specific configuration files for applications are stored
   in the user's home directory in a file that starts with the '.'
   character (a "dot file"). If an application needs to create
   more than one dot file then they should be placed in a
   subdirectory with a name starting with a '.' character, (a "dot
   directory"). In this case the configuration files should not
   start with the '.' character. ^[8]

3.8.3. Home Directory Specifications and Conventions

   A number of efforts have been made in the past to standardize
   the layout of home directories, including the XDG Base
   Directories specification ^[9] and the GLib conventions on user
   directory contents. ^[10] Additional efforts in this direction
   are possible in the future. To accomodate software which makes
   use of these specifications and conventions, distributions may
   create directory hierarchies which follow the specifications
   and conventions. Those directory hierarchies may be located
   underneath home directories.

3.9. /lib : Essential shared libraries and kernel modules

3.9.1. Purpose

   The /lib directory contains those shared library images needed
   to boot the system and run the commands in the root filesystem,
   ie. by binaries in /bin and /sbin. ^[11]

3.9.2. Requirements

   At least one of each of the following filename patterns are
   required (they may be files, or symbolic links):
   File      Description
   libc.so.* The dynamically-linked C library (optional)
   ld*       The execution time linker/loader (optional)

   If a C preprocessor is installed, /lib/cpp must be a reference
   to it, for historical reasons. ^[12]

3.9.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /lib, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory Description
   modules   Loadable kernel modules (optional)

3.10. /lib<qual> : Alternate format essential shared libraries
(optional)

3.10.1. Purpose

   There may be one or more variants of the /lib directory on
   systems which support more than one binary format requiring
   separate libraries. ^[13]

3.10.2. Requirements

   If one or more of these directories exist, the requirements for
   their contents are the same as the normal /lib directory,
   except that /lib<qual>/cpp is not required. ^[14]

3.11. /media : Mount point for removable media

3.11.1. Purpose

   This directory contains subdirectories which are used as mount
   points for removable media such as floppy disks, cdroms and zip
   disks.

Rationale

   Historically there have been a number of other different places
   used to mount removable media such as /cdrom, /mnt or
   /mnt/cdrom. Placing the mount points for all removable media
   directly in the root directory would potentially result in a
   large number of extra directories in /. Although the use of
   subdirectories in /mnt as a mount point has recently been
   common, it conflicts with a much older tradition of using /mnt
   directly as a temporary mount point.

3.11.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /media, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory  Description
   floppy     Floppy drive (optional)
   cdrom      CD-ROM drive (optional)
   cdrecorder CD writer (optional)
   zip        Zip drive (optional)

   On systems where more than one device exists for mounting a
   certain type of media, mount directories can be created by
   appending a digit to the name of those available above starting
   with '0', but the unqualified name must also exist. ^[15]

3.12. /mnt : Mount point for a temporarily mounted filesystem

3.12.1. Purpose

   This directory is provided so that the system administrator may
   temporarily mount a filesystem as needed. The content of this
   directory is a local issue and should not affect the manner in
   which any program is run.

   This directory must not be used by installation programs: a
   suitable temporary directory not in use by the system must be
   used instead.

3.13. /opt : Add-on application software packages

3.13.1. Purpose

   /opt is reserved for the installation of add-on application
   software packages.

   A package to be installed in /opt must locate its static files
   in a separate /opt/<package> or /opt/<provider> directory tree,
   where <package> is a name that describes the software package
   and <provider> is the provider's LANANA registered name.

3.13.2. Requirements

   Directory  Description
   <package>  Static package objects
   <provider> LANANA registered provider name

   The directories /opt/bin, /opt/doc, /opt/include, /opt/info,
   /opt/lib, and /opt/man are reserved for local system
   administrator use. Packages may provide "front-end" files
   intended to be placed in (by linking or copying) these reserved
   directories by the local system administrator, but must
   function normally in the absence of these reserved directories.

   Programs to be invoked by users must be located in the
   directory /opt/<package>/bin or under the /opt/<provider>
   hierarchy. If the package includes UNIX manual pages, they must
   be located in /opt/<package>/share/man or under the
   /opt/<provider> hierarchy, and the same substructure as
   /usr/share/man must be used.

   Package files that are variable (change in normal operation)
   must be installed in /var/opt. See the section on /var/opt for
   more information.

   Host-specific configuration files must be installed in
   /etc/opt. See the section on /etc for more information.

   No other package files may exist outside the /opt, /var/opt,
   and /etc/opt hierarchies except for those package files that
   must reside in specific locations within the filesystem tree in
   order to function properly. For example, device lock files must
   be placed in /var/lock and devices must be located in /dev.

   Distributions may install and otherwise manage software in /opt
   under an appropriately registered subdirectory.

Rationale

   The use of /opt for add-on software is a well-established
   practice in the UNIX community. The System V Application Binary
   Interface [AT&T 1990], based on the System V Interface
   Definition (Third Edition), provides for an /opt structure very
   similar to the one defined here.

   The Intel Binary Compatibility Standard v. 2 (iBCS2) also
   provides a similar structure for /opt.

   Generally, all data required to support a package on a system
   must be present within /opt/<package>, including files intended
   to be copied into /etc/opt/<package> and /var/opt/<package> as
   well as reserved directories in /opt.

   The minor restrictions on distributions using /opt are
   necessary because conflicts are possible between
   distribution-installed and locally-installed software,
   especially in the case of fixed pathnames found in some binary
   software.

   The structure of the directories below /opt/<provider> is left
   up to the packager of the software, though it is recommended
   that packages are installed in /opt/<provider>/<package> and
   follow a similar structure to the guidelines for
   /opt/<package>. A valid reason for diverging from this
   structure is for support packages which may have files
   installed in /opt/<provider>/lib or /opt/<provider>/bin.

3.14. /root : Home directory for the root user (optional)

3.14.1. Purpose

   The root account's home directory may be determined by
   developer or local preference, but this is the recommended
   default location. ^[16]

3.15. /run : Run-time variable data

3.15.1. Purpose

   This directory contains system information data describing the
   system since it was booted. Files under this directory must be
   cleared (removed or truncated as appropriate) at the beginning
   of the boot process.

   The purposes of this directory were once served by /var/run. In
   general, programs may continue to use /var/run to fulfill the
   requirements set out for /run for the purposes of backwards
   compatibility. Programs which have migrated to use /run should
   cease their usage of /var/run, except as noted in the section
   on /var/run.

   Programs may have a subdirectory of /run; this is encouraged
   for programs that use more than one run-time file. Users may
   also have a subdirectory of /run, although care must be taken
   to appropriately limit access rights to prevent unauthorized
   use of /run itself and other subdirectories. ^[17]

3.15.2. Requirements

   Process identifier (PID) files, which were originally placed in
   /etc, must be placed in /run. The naming convention for PID
   files is <program-name>.pid. For example, the crond PID file is
   named /run/crond.pid.

   The internal format of PID files remains unchanged. The file
   must consist of the process identifier in ASCII-encoded
   decimal, followed by a newline character. For example, if crond
   was process number 25, /run/crond.pid would contain three
   characters: two, five, and newline.

   Programs that read PID files should be somewhat flexible in
   what they accept; i.e., they should ignore extra whitespace,
   leading zeroes, absence of the trailing newline, or additional
   lines in the PID file. Programs that create PID files should
   use the simple specification located in the above paragraph.

   System programs that maintain transient UNIX-domain sockets
   must place them in this directory or an appropriate
   subdirectory as outlined above.

3.16. /sbin : System binaries

3.16.1. Purpose

   Utilities used for system administration (and other root-only
   commands) are stored in /sbin, /usr/sbin, and /usr/local/sbin.
   /sbin contains binaries essential for booting, restoring,
   recovering, and/or repairing the system in addition to the
   binaries in /bin. ^[18] Programs executed after /usr is known
   to be mounted (when there are no problems) are generally placed
   into /usr/sbin. Locally-installed system administration
   programs should be placed into /usr/local/sbin. ^[19]

3.16.2. Requirements

   There must be no subdirectories in /sbin.

   The following commands, or symbolic links to commands, are
   required in /sbin:
   Command  Description
   shutdown Command to bring the system down.

3.16.3. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /sbin if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Command Description
   fastboot Reboot the system without checking the disks
   (optional)
   fasthalt Stop the system without checking the disks (optional)
   fdisk Partition table manipulator (optional)
   fsck File system check and repair utility (optional)
   fsck.* File system check and repair utility for a specific
   filesystem (optional)
   getty The getty program (optional)
   halt Command to stop the system (optional)
   ifconfig Configure a network interface (optional)
   init Initial process (optional)
   mkfs Command to build a filesystem (optional)
   mkfs.* Command to build a specific filesystem (optional)
   mkswap Command to set up a swap area (optional)
   reboot Command to reboot the system (optional)
   route IP routing table utility (optional)
   swapon Enable paging and swapping (optional)
   swapoff Disable paging and swapping (optional)
   update Daemon to periodically flush filesystem buffers
   (optional)

3.17. /srv : Data for services provided by this system

3.17.1. Purpose

   /srv contains site-specific data which is served by this
   system.

Rationale

   This main purpose of specifying this is so that users may find
   the location of the data files for a particular service, and so
   that services which require a single tree for readonly data,
   writable data and scripts (such as cgi scripts) can be
   reasonably placed. Data that is only of interest to a specific
   user should go in that users' home directory. If the directory
   and file structure of the data is not exposed to consumers, it
   should go in /var/lib.

   The methodology used to name subdirectories of /srv is
   unspecified as there is currently no consensus on how this
   should be done. One method for structuring data under /srv is
   by protocol, eg. ftp, rsync, www, and cvs. On large systems it
   can be useful to structure /srv by administrative context, such
   as /srv/physics/www, /srv/compsci/cvs, etc. This setup will
   differ from host to host. Therefore, no program should rely on
   a specific subdirectory structure of /srv existing or data
   necessarily being stored in /srv. However /srv should always
   exist on FHS compliant systems and should be used as the
   default location for such data.

   Distributions must take care not to remove locally placed files
   in these directories without administrator permission. ^[20]

3.18. /tmp : Temporary files

3.18.1. Purpose

   The /tmp directory must be made available for programs that
   require temporary files.

   Programs must not assume that any files or directories in /tmp
   are preserved between invocations of the program.

Rationale

   IEEE standard POSIX.1-2008 lists requirements similar to the
   above section.

   Although data stored in /tmp may be deleted in a site-specific
   manner, it is recommended that files and directories located in
   /tmp be deleted whenever the system is booted.

   FHS added this recommendation on the basis of historical
   precedent and common practice, but did not make it a
   requirement because system administration is not within the
   scope of this standard.
     __________________________________________________________

   ^[1] Command binaries that are not essential enough to place
   into /bin must be placed in /usr/bin, instead. Items that are
   required only by non-root users (the X Window System, chsh,
   etc.) are generally not essential enough to be placed into the
   root partition.

   ^[2] To be clear, /etc may contain executable scripts, such as
   the command scripts commonly called by init to start and shut
   down the system and start daemon processes. "Executable binary"
   in this context refers to direct machine code or pseudocode not
   in a human-readable format, such as native ELF executables.

   ^[3] Systems that use the shadow password suite will have
   additional configuration files in /etc (/etc/shadow and others)
   and programs in /usr/sbin (useradd, usermod, and others).

   ^[4] On some Linux systems, this may be a symbolic link to
   /proc/mounts, in which case this exception is not required.

   ^[5] /etc/X11/xdm holds the configuration files for xdm. These
   are most of the files previously found in /usr/lib/X11/xdm.
   Some local variable data for xdm is stored in /var/lib/xdm.

   ^[6] Different people prefer to place user accounts in a
   variety of places. This section describes only a suggested
   placement for user home directories; nevertheless we recommend
   that all FHS-compliant distributions use this as the default
   location for user home directories. Non-login accounts created
   for administrative purposes often have their home directories
   elsewhere.

   On smaller systems, each user's home directory is typically
   implemented as a subdirectory directly under /home, for example
   /home/smith, /home/torvalds, /home/operator, etc. On large
   systems (especially when the /home directories are shared
   amongst many hosts using NFS) it is useful to subdivide user
   home directories. Subdivision may be accomplished by using
   subdirectories such as /home/staff, /home/guests,
   /home/students, etc.

   ^[7] To find a user's home directory, use a library function
   such as getpwent, getpwent_r of fgetpwent rather than relying
   on /etc/passwd because user information may be stored remotely
   using systems such as NIS.

   ^[8] It is recommended that, apart from autosave and lock
   files, programs should refrain from creating non dot files or
   directories in a home directory without user consent.

   ^[9] Found at
   http://standards.freedesktop.org/basedir-spec/basedir-spec-late
   st.html and
   http://www.freedesktop.org/wiki/Software/xdg-user-dirs.

   ^[10] A description of GLib's conventions can be found in the
   documentation for GUserDirectory, at
   http://developer.gnome.org/glib/unstable/glib-Miscellaneous-Uti
   lity-Functions.html#GUserDirectory.

   ^[11] Shared libraries that are only necessary for binaries in
   /usr (such as any X Window binaries) must not be in /lib. Only
   the shared libraries required to run binaries in /bin and /sbin
   may be here. In particular, the library libm.so.* may also be
   placed in /usr/lib if it is not required by anything in /bin or
   /sbin.

   ^[12] The usual placement of this binary is /usr/bin/cpp.

   ^[13] This is commonly used for 64-bit or 32-bit support on
   systems which support multiple binary formats, but require
   libraries of the same name. In this case, /lib32 and /lib64
   might be the library directories, and /lib a symlink to one of
   them.

   ^[14] /lib<qual>/cpp is still permitted: this allows the case
   where /lib and /lib<qual> are the same (one is a symbolic link
   to the other).

   ^[15] A compliant distribution with two CDROM drives might have
   /media/cdrom0 and /media/cdrom1 with /media/cdrom a symlink to
   either of these.

   ^[16] If the home directory of the root account is not stored
   on the root partition it will be necessary to make certain it
   will default to / if it cannot be located.

   We recommend against using the root account for tasks that can
   be performed as an unprivileged user, and that it be used
   solely for system administration. For this reason, we recommend
   that subdirectories for mail and other applications not appear
   in the root account's home directory, and that mail for
   administration roles such as root, postmaster, and webmaster be
   forwarded to an appropriate user.

   ^[17] /run should not be writable for unprivileged users; it is
   a major security problem if any user can write in this
   directory. User-specific subdirectories should be writable only
   by each directory's owner.

   ^[18] Originally, /sbin binaries were kept in /etc.

   ^[19] Deciding what things go into "sbin" directories is
   simple: if a normal (not a system administrator) user will ever
   run it directly, then it must be placed in one of the "bin"
   directories. Ordinary users should not have to place any of the
   sbin directories in their path.

   For example, files such as chfn which users only occasionally
   use must still be placed in /usr/bin. ping, although it is
   absolutely necessary for root (network recovery and diagnosis)
   is often used by users and must live in /bin for that reason.

   We recommend that users have read and execute permission for
   everything in /sbin except, perhaps, certain setuid and setgid
   programs. The division between /bin and /sbin was not created
   for security reasons or to prevent users from seeing the
   operating system, but to provide a good partition between
   binaries that everyone uses and ones that are primarily used
   for administration tasks. There is no inherent security
   advantage in making /sbin off-limits for users.

   ^[20] This is particularly important as these areas will often
   contain both files initially installed by the distributor, and
   those added by the administrator.

Chapter 4. The /usr Hierarchy


   Table of Contents

   4.1. Purpose
   4.2. Requirements
   4.3. Specific Options
   4.4. /usr/bin : Most user commands

        4.4.1. Purpose
        4.4.2. Requirements
        4.4.3. Specific Options

   4.5. /usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

        4.5.1. Purpose
        4.5.2. Specific Options

   4.6. /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

        4.6.1. Purpose
        4.6.2. Specific Options

   4.7. /usr/libexec : Binaries run by other programs (optional)

        4.7.1. Purpose

   4.8. /usr/lib<qual> : Alternate format libraries (optional)

        4.8.1. Purpose

   4.9. /usr/local : Local hierarchy

        4.9.1. Purpose
        4.9.2. Requirements
        4.9.3. Specific Options
        4.9.4. /usr/local/share : Local architecture-independent
                hierarchy

   4.10. /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

        4.10.1. Purpose
        4.10.2. Requirements

   4.11. /usr/share : Architecture-independent data

        4.11.1. Purpose
        4.11.2. Requirements
        4.11.3. Specific Options
        4.11.4. /usr/share/color : Color management information
                (optional)

        4.11.5. /usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)
        4.11.6. /usr/share/man : Manual pages
        4.11.7. /usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous
                architecture-independent data

        4.11.8. /usr/share/ppd : Printer definitions (optional)
        4.11.9. /usr/share/sgml : SGML data (optional)
        4.11.10. /usr/share/xml : XML data (optional)

   4.12. /usr/src : Source code (optional)

        4.12.1. Purpose

4.1. Purpose

   /usr is the second major section of the filesystem. /usr is
   shareable, read-only data. That means that /usr should be
   shareable between various FHS-compliant hosts and must not be
   written to. Any information that is host-specific or varies
   with time is stored elsewhere.

   Large software packages must not use a direct subdirectory
   under the /usr hierarchy.

4.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   are required in /usr.
   Directory Description
   bin       Most user commands
   lib       Libraries
   local     Local hierarchy (empty after main installation)
   sbin      Non-vital system binaries
   share     Architecture-independent data

4.3. Specific Options

   Directory Description
   games     Games and educational binaries (optional)
   include   Header files included by C programs
   libexec   Binaries run by other programs (optional)
   lib<qual> Alternate Format Libraries (optional)
   src       Source code (optional)

   An exception is made for the X Window System because of
   considerable precedent and widely-accepted practice.

   The following symbolic links to directories may be present.
   This possibility is based on the need to preserve compatibility
   with older systems until all distribution can be assumed to use
   the /var hierarchy.
    /usr/spool -> /var/spool
    /usr/tmp -> /var/tmp
    /usr/spool/locks -> /var/lock

   Once a system no longer requires any one of the above symbolic
   links, the link may be removed, if desired.

4.4. /usr/bin : Most user commands

4.4.1. Purpose

   This is the primary directory of executable commands on the
   system.

4.4.2. Requirements

   There must be no subdirectories in /usr/bin.

4.4.3. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /usr/bin, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Command Description
   perl    The Practical Extraction and Report Language (optional)
   python  The Python interpreted language (optional)
   tclsh   Simple shell containing Tcl interpreter (optional)
   wish    Simple Tcl/Tk windowing shell (optional)
   expect  Program for interactive dialog (optional)

Rationale

   In many executable scripts, the interpreter to be invoked to
   execute the script is specified using #!path_to_interpreter on
   the first line of a script. To make such scripts portable among
   different systems, it is advantageous to standardize the
   interpreter locations. The shell interpreter is already fixed
   in /bin by this specification, but interpreters for Perl,
   Python, Tcl and expect may be installed in various places. The
   locations specified here may be implemented as symbolic links
   to the physical location of the interpreters.

4.5. /usr/include : Directory for standard include files.

4.5.1. Purpose

   This is where all of the system's general-use include files for
   the C programming language should be placed.

4.5.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/include, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   bsd       BSD compatibility include files (optional)

4.6. /usr/lib : Libraries for programming and packages

4.6.1. Purpose

   /usr/lib includes object files and libraries. ^[21] On some
   systems, it may also include internal binaries that are not
   intended to be executed directly by users or shell scripts.
   ^[22]

   Applications may use a single subdirectory under /usr/lib. If
   an application uses a subdirectory, all architecture-dependent
   data exclusively used by the application must be placed within
   that subdirectory. ^[23]

4.6.2. Specific Options

   For historical reasons, /usr/lib/sendmail must be a symbolic
   link which resolves to the sendmail-compatible command provided
   by the system's mail transfer agent, if the latter exists.
   ^[24] ^[25]

4.7. /usr/libexec : Binaries run by other programs (optional)

4.7.1. Purpose

   /usr/libexec includes internal binaries that are not intended
   to be executed directly by users or shell scripts. Applications
   may use a single subdirectory under /usr/libexec.

   Applications which use /usr/libexec in this way must not also
   use /usr/lib to store internal binaries, though they may use
   /usr/lib for the other purposes documented here.

Rationale

   Some previous versions of this document did not support
   /usr/libexec, despite it being standard practice in a number of
   environments. ^[26] To accomodate this restriction, it became
   common practice to use /usr/lib instead. Either practice is now
   acceptable, but each application must choose one way or the
   other to organize itself.

4.8. /usr/lib<qual> : Alternate format libraries (optional)

4.8.1. Purpose

   /usr/lib<qual> performs the same role as /usr/lib for an
   alternate binary format, except that the symbolic links
   /usr/lib<qual>/sendmail and /usr/lib<qual>/X11 are not
   required. ^[27]

4.9. /usr/local : Local hierarchy

4.9.1. Purpose

   The /usr/local hierarchy is for use by the system administrator
   when installing software locally. It needs to be safe from
   being overwritten when the system software is updated. It may
   be used for programs and data that are shareable amongst a
   group of hosts, but not found in /usr.

   Locally installed software must be placed within /usr/local
   rather than /usr unless it is being installed to replace or
   upgrade software in /usr. ^[28]

4.9.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/local
   Directory Description
   bin       Local binaries
   etc       Host-specific system configuration for local binaries
   games     Local game binaries
   include   Local C header files
   lib       Local libraries
   man       Local online manuals
   sbin      Local system binaries
   share     Local architecture-independent hierarchy
   src       Local source code

   No other directories, except those listed below, may be in
   /usr/local after first installing a FHS-compliant system.

4.9.3. Specific Options

   If directories /lib<qual> or /usr/lib<qual> exist, the
   equivalent directories must also exist in /usr/local.

   /usr/local/etc may be a symbolic link to /etc/local.

Rationale

   The consistency of /usr/local/etc is beneficial to installers,
   and is already used in other systems. As all of /usr/local
   needs to be backed up to reproduce a system, it introduces no
   additional maintenance overhead, but a symlink to /etc/local is
   suitable if systems want all their configuration under one
   hierarchy.

   Note that /usr/etc is still not allowed: programs in /usr
   should place configuration files in /etc.

   If the directory /usr/share/color exists as specified in this
   document, then the directory /usr/local/share/color must also
   exist, governed by the same rules as /usr/share/color.

Rationale

   This usage allows the sysadmin a place to install color
   profiles manually when necessary.

4.9.4. /usr/local/share : Local architecture-independent hierarchy

   The requirements for the contents of this directory are the
   same as for /usr/share.

4.10. /usr/sbin : Non-essential standard system binaries

4.10.1. Purpose

   This directory contains any non-essential binaries used
   exclusively by the system administrator. System administration
   programs that are required for system repair, system recovery,
   mounting /usr, or other essential functions must be placed in
   /sbin instead. ^[29]

4.10.2. Requirements

   There must be no subdirectories in /usr/sbin.

4.11. /usr/share : Architecture-independent data

4.11.1. Purpose

   The /usr/share hierarchy is for all read-only architecture
   independent data files. ^[30]

   This hierarchy is intended to be shareable among all
   architecture platforms of a given OS; thus, for example, a site
   with i386, Alpha, and PPC platforms might maintain a single
   /usr/share directory that is centrally-mounted. Note, however,
   that /usr/share is generally not intended to be shared by
   different OSes or by different releases of the same OS.

   Any program or package which contains or requires data that
   doesn't need to be modified should store that data in
   /usr/share (or /usr/local/share, if installed locally). It is
   recommended that a subdirectory be used in /usr/share for this
   purpose. Applications using a single file may use
   /usr/share/misc.

   Game data stored in /usr/share/games must be purely static
   data. Any modifiable files, such as score files, game play
   logs, and so forth, should be placed in /var/games.

4.11.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/share
   Directory Description
   man       Online manuals
   misc      Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

4.11.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/share, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   color     Color management information (optional)
   dict      Word lists (optional)
   doc       Miscellaneous documentation (optional)
   games     Static data files for /usr/games (optional)
   info      Primary directory for GNU Info system (optional)
   locale    Locale information (optional)
   nls       Message catalogs for Native language support (optional)
   ppd       Printer definitions (optional)
   sgml      SGML data (optional)
   terminfo  Directories for terminfo database (optional)
   tmac      troff macros not distributed with groff (optional)
   xml       XML data (optional)
   zoneinfo  Timezone information and configuration (optional)

   It is recommended that application-specific,
   architecture-independent directories be placed here. Such
   directories include groff, perl, ghostscript, texmf, and kbd
   (Linux) or syscons (BSD). They may, however, be placed in
   /usr/lib for backwards compatibility, at the distributor's
   discretion. Similarly, a /usr/lib/games hierarchy may be used
   in addition to the /usr/share/games hierarchy if the
   distributor wishes to place some game data there.

4.11.4. /usr/share/color : Color management information (optional)

4.11.4.1. Purpose

   This directory is the home for ICC color management files
   installed by the system.

4.11.4.2. Specific Options

   The following directories must be in /usr/share/color, if the
   corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory Description
   icc       ICC color profiles (optional)

   The top-level directory /usr/share/color must not contain any
   files; all files should be in subdirectories of
   /usr/share/color.

4.11.5. /usr/share/dict : Word lists (optional)

4.11.5.1. Purpose

   This directory is the home for word lists on the system;
   Traditionally this directory contains only the English words
   file, which is used by look(1) and various spelling programs.
   words may use either American or British spelling.

Rationale

   The reason that only word lists are located here is that they
   are the only files common to all spell checkers.

4.11.5.2. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /usr/share/dict, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   File  Description
   words List of English words (optional)

   Sites that require both American and British spelling may link
   words to /usr/share/dict/american-english or
   /usr/share/dict/british-english.

   Word lists for other languages may be added using the English
   name for that language, e.g., /usr/share/dict/french,
   /usr/share/dict/danish, etc. These should, if possible, use a
   character set based on Unicode, with the UTF-8 character set
   being the preferred option.

   Other word lists must be included here, if present.

4.11.6. /usr/share/man : Manual pages

4.11.6.1. Purpose

   This section details the organization for manual pages
   throughout the system, including /usr/share/man. Also refer to
   the section on /var/cache/man.

   The primary <mandir> of the system is /usr/share/man.
   /usr/share/man contains manual information for commands and
   data under the / and /usr filesystems. ^[31]

   Manual pages are stored in
   <mandir>/<locale>/man<section>/<arch>. An explanation of
   <mandir>, <locale>, <section>, and <arch> is given below.

   A description of each section follows:
     * man1: User programs Manual pages that describe publicly
       accessible commands are contained in this chapter. Most
       program documentation that a user will need to use is
       located here.
     * man2: System calls This section describes all of the system
       calls (requests for the kernel to perform operations).
     * man3: Library functions and subroutines Section 3 describes
       program library routines that are not direct calls to
       kernel services. This and chapter 2 are only really of
       interest to programmers.
     * man4: Special files Section 4 describes the special files,
       related driver functions, and networking support available
       in the system. Typically, this includes the device files
       found in /dev and the kernel interface to networking
       protocol support.
     * man5: File formats The formats for many data files are
       documented in the section 5. This includes various include
       files, program output files, and system files.
     * man6: Games This chapter documents games, demos, and
       generally trivial programs. Different people have various
       notions about how essential this is.
     * man7: Miscellaneous Manual pages that are difficult to
       classify are designated as being section 7. The troff and
       other text processing macro packages are found here.
     * man8: System administration Programs used by system
       administrators for system operation and maintenance are
       documented here. Some of these programs are also
       occasionally useful for normal users.

4.11.6.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/share/<mandir>/<locale>, unless they are empty:
   ^[32]
   Directory Description
   man1      User programs (optional)
   man2      System calls (optional)
   man3      Library calls (optional)
   man4      Special files (optional)
   man5      File formats (optional)
   man6      Games (optional)
   man7      Miscellaneous (optional)
   man8      System administration (optional)

   The component <section> describes the manual section.

   Provisions must be made in the structure of /usr/share/man to
   support manual pages which are written in different (or
   multiple) languages. These provisions must take into account
   the storage and reference of these manual pages. Relevant
   factors include language (including geographical-based
   differences), and character code set.

   This naming of language subdirectories of /usr/share/man is
   based on Appendix E of the POSIX 1003.1 standard which
   describes the locale identification string — the most
   well-accepted method to describe a cultural environment. The
   <locale> string is:

   <language>[_<territory>][.<character-set>][,<version>]

   The <language> field must be taken from ISO 639 (a code for the
   representation of names of languages). It must be two
   characters wide and specified with lowercase letters only.

   The <territory> field must be the two-letter code of ISO 3166
   (a specification of representations of countries), if possible.
   (Most people are familiar with the two-letter codes used for
   the country codes in email addresses.) It must be two
   characters wide and specified with uppercase letters only.
   ^[33]

   The <character-set> field must represent the standard
   describing the character set. If the <character-set> field is
   just a numeric specification, the number represents the number
   of the international standard describing the character set. It
   is recommended that this be a numeric representation if
   possible (ISO standards, especially), not include additional
   punctuation symbols, and that any letters be in lowercase.

   A parameter specifying a <version> of the profile may be placed
   after the <character-set> field, delimited by a comma. This may
   be used to discriminate between different cultural needs; for
   instance, dictionary order versus a more systems-oriented
   collating order. This standard recommends not using the
   <version> field, unless it is necessary.

   Systems which use a unique language and code set for all manual
   pages may omit the <locale> substring and store all manual
   pages in <mandir>. For example, systems which only have English
   manual pages coded with ASCII, may store manual pages (the
   man<section> directories) directly in /usr/share/man. (That is
   the traditional circumstance and arrangement, in fact.)

   Countries for which there is a well-accepted standard character
   code set may omit the <character-set> field, but it is strongly
   recommended that it be included, especially for countries with
   several competing standards.

   Various examples:
   Language Territory      Character Set   Directory
   English  —              ASCII           /usr/share/man/en
   English  United Kingdom Unicode UTF-8   /usr/share/man/en_GB.10646
   English  United States  ASCII           /usr/share/man/en_US
   French   Canada         ISO 8859-1      /usr/share/man/fr_CA.88591
   French   France         ISO 8859-1      /usr/share/man/fr_FR.88591
   German   Germany        ISO 646         /usr/share/man/de_DE.646
   German   Germany        ISO 6937        /usr/share/man/de_DE.6937
   German   Germany        ISO 8859-1      /usr/share/man/de_DE.88591
   German   Switzerland    ISO 646         /usr/share/man/de_CH.646
   Japanese Japan          JIS             /usr/share/man/ja_JP.jis
   Japanese Japan          SJIS            /usr/share/man/ja_JP.sjis
   Japanese Japan          UJIS (or EUC-J) /usr/share/man/ja_JP.ujis
   Japanese Japan          Unicode UTF-16  /usr/share/man/ja_JP.10646

   Similarly, provision must be made for manual pages which are
   architecture-dependent, such as documentation on device-drivers
   or low-level system administration commands. These must be
   placed under an <arch> directory in the appropriate
   man<section> directory; for example, a man page for the i386
   ctrlaltdel(8) command might be placed in
   /usr/share/man/<locale>/man8/i386/ctrlaltdel.8.

   Manual pages for commands and data under /usr/local are stored
   in /usr/local/man or /usr/local/share/man. All manual page
   hierarchies in the system must have the same structure as
   /usr/share/man, as this structure is expected by commands which
   consume manual page content. ^[34]

   The cat page sections (cat<section>) containing formatted
   manual page entries are also found within subdirectories of
   <mandir>/<locale>, but are not required nor may they be
   distributed in lieu of nroff source manual pages.

   The numbered sections "1" through "8" are traditionally
   defined. In general, the file name for manual pages located
   within a particular section end with .<section>.

   In addition, some large sets of application-specific manual
   pages have an additional suffix appended to the manual page
   filename. For example, the MH mail handling system manual pages
   must have mh appended to all MH manuals. All X Window System
   manual pages must have an x appended to the filename.

   The practice of placing various language manual pages in
   appropriate subdirectories of /usr/share/man also applies to
   the other manual page hierarchies, such as /usr/local/man.
   (This portion of the standard also applies later in the section
   on the optional /var/cache/man structure.)

4.11.7. /usr/share/misc : Miscellaneous architecture-independent data

   This directory contains miscellaneous architecture-independent
   files which don't require a separate subdirectory under
   /usr/share.

4.11.7.1. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /usr/share/misc, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   File       Description
   ascii      ASCII character set table (optional)
   termcap    Terminal capability database (optional)
   termcap.db Terminal capability database (optional)

   Other (application-specific) files may appear here, but a
   distributor may place them in /usr/lib at their discretion.
   ^[35] ^[36]

4.11.8. /usr/share/ppd : Printer definitions (optional)

4.11.8.1. Purpose

   /usr/share/ppd contains PostScript Printer Definition (PPD)
   files, which are used as descriptions of printer drivers by
   many print systems. PPD files may be placed in this directory,
   or in a subdirectory.

4.11.9. /usr/share/sgml : SGML data (optional)

4.11.9.1. Purpose

   /usr/share/sgml contains architecture-independent files used by
   SGML applications, such as ordinary catalogs (not the
   centralized ones, see /etc/sgml), DTDs, entities, or style
   sheets.

4.11.9.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/share/sgml, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   docbook   docbook DTD (optional)
   tei       tei DTD (optional)
   html      html DTD (optional)
   mathml    mathml DTD (optional)

   Other files that are not specific to a given DTD may reside in
   their own subdirectory.

4.11.10. /usr/share/xml : XML data (optional)

4.11.10.1. Purpose

   /usr/share/xml contains architecture-independent files used by
   XML applications, such as ordinary catalogs (not the
   centralized ones, see /etc/sgml), DTDs, entities, or style
   sheets.

4.11.10.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /usr/share/xml, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   docbook   docbook XML DTD (optional)
   xhtml     XHTML DTD (optional)
   mathml    MathML DTD (optional)

4.12. /usr/src : Source code (optional)

4.12.1. Purpose

   Source code may be placed in this subdirectory, only for
   reference purposes. ^[37]
     __________________________________________________________

   ^[21] Miscellaneous architecture-independent
   application-specific static files and subdirectories must be
   placed in /usr/share.

   ^[22] See below, in the /usr/libexec section, for a discussion
   of /usr/lib vs. /usr/libexec for executable binaries.

   ^[23] For example, the perl5 subdirectory for Perl 5 modules
   and libraries.

   ^[24] Some executable commands such as makewhatis and sendmail
   have also been traditionally placed in /usr/lib. makewhatis is
   an internal binary and must be placed in a binary directory;
   users access only catman. Newer sendmail binaries are now
   placed by default in /usr/sbin. Additionally, systems using a
   sendmail-compatible mail transfer agent must provide
   /usr/sbin/sendmail as the sendmail command, either as the
   executable itself or as a symlink to the appropriate
   executable.

   ^[25] Host-specific data for the X Window System must not be
   stored in /usr/lib/X11. Host-specific configuration files such
   as xorg.conf must be stored in /etc/X11. This includes
   configuration data such as system.twmrc even if it is only made
   a symbolic link to a more global configuration file (probably
   in /usr/lib/X11).

   ^[26] See, for example, the "GNU Coding Standards" from the
   Free Software Foundation.

   ^[27] The case where /usr/lib and /usr/lib<qual> are the same
   (one is a symbolic link to the other) these files and the
   per-application subdirectories will exist.

   ^[28] Software placed in / or /usr may be overwritten by system
   upgrades (though we recommend that distributions do not
   overwrite data in /etc under these circumstances). For this
   reason, local software must not be placed outside of /usr/local
   without good reason.

   ^[29] Locally installed system administration programs should
   be placed in /usr/local/sbin.

   ^[30] Much of this data originally lived in /usr (man, doc) or
   /usr/lib (dict, terminfo, zoneinfo).

   ^[31] Obviously, there are no manual pages in / because they
   are not required at boot time nor are they required in
   emergencies. Really.

   ^[32] For example, if /usr/share/man has no manual pages in
   section 4 (Devices), then /usr/share/man/man4 may be omitted.

   ^[33] A major exception to this rule is the United Kingdom,
   which is `GB' in the ISO 3166, but `UK' for most email
   addresses.

   ^[34] /usr/local/man is deprecated and may be dropped in a
   future version of this specification.

   ^[35] Some such files include: airport, birthtoken, eqnchar,
   getopt, gprof.callg, gprof.flat, inter.phone,
   ipfw.samp.filters, ipfw.samp.scripts, keycap.pcvt, mail.help,
   mail.tildehelp, man.template, map3270, mdoc.template,
   more.help, na.phone, nslookup.help, operator, scsi_modes,
   sendmail.hf, style, units.lib, vgrindefs, vgrindefs.db,
   zipcodes.

   ^[36] Historically, the magic file was placed in
   /usr/share/misc, but modern variants of the file command use
   several files and place them in /usr/share/file. For
   compatibility, distribution may create a symlink at
   /usr/share/misc/magic, pointing to /usr/share/file/magic.

   ^[37] Generally, source should not be built within this
   hierarchy.

Chapter 5. The /var Hierarchy


   Table of Contents

   5.1. Purpose
   5.2. Requirements
   5.3. Specific Options
   5.4. /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

        5.4.1. Purpose

   5.5. /var/cache : Application cache data

        5.5.1. Purpose
        5.5.2. Specific Options
        5.5.3. /var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts
                (optional)

        5.5.4. /var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual pages
                (optional)

   5.6. /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

        5.6.1. Purpose

   5.7. /var/games : Variable game data (optional)

        5.7.1. Purpose

   5.8. /var/lib : Variable state information

        5.8.1. Purpose
        5.8.2. Requirements
        5.8.3. Specific Options
        5.8.4. /var/lib/<editor> : Editor backup files and state
                (optional)

        5.8.5. /var/lib/color : Color management information
                (optional)

        5.8.6. /var/lib/hwclock : State directory for hwclock
                (optional)

        5.8.7. /var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

   5.9. /var/lock : Lock files

        5.9.1. Purpose

   5.10. /var/log : Log files and directories

        5.10.1. Purpose
        5.10.2. Specific Options

   5.11. /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

        5.11.1. Purpose

   5.12. /var/opt : Variable data for /opt

        5.12.1. Purpose

   5.13. /var/run : Run-time variable data

        5.13.1. Purpose
        5.13.2. Requirements

   5.14. /var/spool : Application spool data

        5.14.1. Purpose
        5.14.2. Specific Options
        5.14.3. /var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print queues
                (optional)

        5.14.4. /var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)

   5.15. /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system
          reboots

        5.15.1. Purpose

   5.16. /var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database
          files (optional)

        5.16.1. Purpose

5.1. Purpose

   /var contains variable data files. This includes spool
   directories and files, administrative and logging data, and
   transient and temporary files.

   Some portions of /var are not shareable between different
   systems. For instance, /var/log, /var/lock, and /var/run. Other
   portions may be shared, notably /var/mail, /var/cache/man,
   /var/cache/fonts, and /var/spool/news.

   /var is specified here in order to make it possible to mount
   /usr read-only. Everything that once went into /usr that is
   written to during system operation (as opposed to installation
   and software maintenance) must be in /var.

   If /var cannot be made a separate partition, it is often
   preferable to move /var out of the root partition and into the
   /usr partition. (This is sometimes done to reduce the size of
   the root partition or when space runs low in the root
   partition.) However, /var must not be linked to /usr because
   this makes separation of /usr and /var more difficult and is
   likely to create a naming conflict. Instead, link /var to
   /usr/var.

   Applications must generally not add directories to the top
   level of /var. Such directories should only be added if they
   have some system-wide implication, and in consultation with the
   FHS mailing list.

5.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   are required in /var:
   Directory Description
   cache     Application cache data
   lib       Variable state information
   local     Variable data for /usr/local
   lock      Lock files
   log       Log files and directories
   opt       Variable data for /opt
   run       Data relevant to running processes
   spool     Application spool data
   tmp       Temporary files preserved between system reboots

   Several directories are `reserved' in the sense that they must
   not be used arbitrarily by some new application, since they
   would conflict with historical and/or local practice. They are:
    /var/backups
    /var/cron
    /var/msgs
    /var/preserve

5.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /var, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   Directory Description
   account   Process accounting logs (optional)
   crash     System crash dumps (optional)
   games     Variable game data (optional)
   mail      User mailbox files (optional)
   yp        Network Information Service (NIS) database files (optional)

5.4. /var/account : Process accounting logs (optional)

5.4.1. Purpose

   This directory holds the current active process accounting log
   and the composite process usage data (as used in some UNIX-like
   systems by lastcomm and sa).

5.5. /var/cache : Application cache data

5.5.1. Purpose

   /var/cache is intended for cached data from applications. Such
   data is locally generated as a result of time-consuming I/O or
   calculation. The application must be able to regenerate or
   restore the data. Unlike /var/spool, the cached files can be
   deleted without data loss. The data must remain valid between
   invocations of the application and rebooting the system.

   Files located under /var/cache may be expired in an application
   specific manner, by the system administrator, or both. The
   application must always be able to recover from manual deletion
   of these files (generally because of a disk space shortage). No
   other requirements are made on the data format of the cache
   directories.

Rationale

   The existence of a separate directory for cached data allows
   system administrators to set different disk and backup policies
   from other directories in /var.

5.5.2. Specific Options

   Directory Description
   fonts     Locally-generated fonts (optional)
   man       Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)
   www       WWW proxy or cache data (optional)
   <package> Package specific cache data (optional)

5.5.3. /var/cache/fonts : Locally-generated fonts (optional)

5.5.3.1. Purpose

   The directory /var/cache/fonts should be used to store any
   dynamically-created fonts. In particular, all of the fonts
   which are automatically generated by mktexpk must be located in
   appropriately-named subdirectories of /var/cache/fonts. ^[38]

5.5.3.2. Specific Options

   Other dynamically created fonts may also be placed in this
   tree, under appropriately-named subdirectories of
   /var/cache/fonts.

5.5.4. /var/cache/man : Locally-formatted manual pages (optional)

5.5.4.1. Purpose

   This directory provides a standard location for sites that
   provide a read-only /usr partition, but wish to allow caching
   of locally-formatted man pages. Sites that mount /usr as
   writable (e.g., single-user installations) may choose not to
   use /var/cache/man and may write formatted man pages into the
   cat<section> directories in /usr/share/man directly. We
   recommend that most sites use one of the following options
   instead:
     * Preformat all manual pages alongside the unformatted
       versions.
     * Allow no caching of formatted man pages, and require
       formatting to be done each time a man page is brought up.
     * Allow local caching of formatted man pages in
       /var/cache/man.

   The structure of /var/cache/man needs to reflect both the fact
   of multiple man page hierarchies and the possibility of
   multiple language support.

   Given an unformatted manual page that normally appears in
   <path>/man/<locale>/man<section>, the directory to place
   formatted man pages in is
   /var/cache/man/<catpath>/<locale>/cat<section>, where <catpath>
   is derived from <path> by removing any leading usr and/or
   trailing share pathname components. (Note that the <locale>
   component may be missing.) ^[39]

   Man pages written to /var/cache/man may eventually be
   transferred to the appropriate preformatted directories in the
   source man hierarchy or expired; likewise formatted man pages
   in the source man hierarchy may be expired if they are not
   accessed for a period of time.

   If preformatted manual pages come with a system on read-only
   media (a CD-ROM, for instance), they must be installed in the
   source man hierarchy (e.g. /usr/share/man/cat<section>).
   /var/cache/man is reserved as a writable cache for formatted
   manual pages.

Rationale

   Release 1.2 of this standard specified /var/catman for this
   hierarchy. The path has been moved under /var/cache to better
   reflect the dynamic nature of the formatted man pages. The
   directory name has been changed to man to allow for enhancing
   the hierarchy to include post-processed formats other than
   "cat", such as PostScript, HTML, or DVI.

5.6. /var/crash : System crash dumps (optional)

5.6.1. Purpose

   This directory holds system crash dumps. As of the date of this
   release of the standard, system crash dumps were not supported
   under Linux but may be supported by other systems which may
   comply with the FHS.

5.7. /var/games : Variable game data (optional)

5.7.1. Purpose

   Any variable data relating to games in /usr should be placed
   here. /var/games should hold the variable data previously found
   in /usr; static data, such as help text, level descriptions,
   and so on, must remain elsewhere, such as /usr/share/games.

Rationale

   /var/games has been given a hierarchy of its own, rather than
   leaving it underneath /var/lib as in release 1.2 of this
   standard. The separation allows local control of backup
   strategies, permissions, and disk usage, as well as allowing
   inter-host sharing and reducing clutter in /var/lib.
   Additionally, /var/games is the path traditionally used by BSD.

5.8. /var/lib : Variable state information

5.8.1. Purpose

   This hierarchy holds state information pertaining to an
   application or the system. State information is data that
   programs modify while they run, and that pertains to one
   specific host. Users must never need to modify files in
   /var/lib to configure a package's operation, and the specific
   file hierarchy used to store the data must not be exposed to
   regular users. ^[40]

   State information is generally used to preserve the condition
   of an application (or a group of inter-related applications)
   between invocations and between different instances of the same
   application. State information should generally remain valid
   after a reboot, should not be logging output, and should not be
   spooled data.

   An application (or a group of inter-related applications) must
   use a subdirectory of /var/lib for its data. There is one
   required subdirectory, /var/lib/misc, which is intended for
   state files that don't need a subdirectory; the other
   subdirectories should only be present if the application in
   question is included in the distribution. ^[41]

   /var/lib/<name> is the location that must be used for all
   distribution packaging support. Different distributions may use
   different names, of course.

5.8.2. Requirements

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   are required in /var/lib:
   Directory Description
   misc      Miscellaneous state data

5.8.3. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /var/lib, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   <editor>  Editor backup files and state (optional)
   <pkgtool> Packaging support files (optional)
   <package> State data for packages and subsystems (optional)
   color     Color management information (optional)
   hwclock   State directory for hwclock (optional)
   xdm       X display manager variable data (optional)

5.8.4. /var/lib/<editor> : Editor backup files and state (optional)

5.8.4.1. Purpose

   These directories contain saved files generated by any
   unexpected termination of an editor (e.g., elvis, jove, nvi).

   Other editors may not require a directory for crash-recovery
   files, but may require a well-defined place to store other
   information while the editor is running. This information
   should be stored in a subdirectory under /var/lib (for example,
   GNU Emacs would place lock files in /var/lib/emacs/lock).

   Future editors may require additional state information beyond
   crash-recovery files and lock files — this information should
   also be placed under /var/lib/<editor>.

Rationale

   Previous Linux releases, as well as all commercial vendors, use
   /var/preserve for vi or its clones. However, each editor uses
   its own format for these crash-recovery files, so a separate
   directory is needed for each editor.

   Editor-specific lock files are usually quite different from the
   device or resource lock files that are stored in /var/lock and,
   hence, are stored under /var/lib.

5.8.5. /var/lib/color : Color management information (optional)

5.8.5.1. Purpose

   This directory is the home for ICC color management files
   installed dynamically. This directory shall be laid out using
   the same rules as the /usr/share/color directory.

5.8.6. /var/lib/hwclock : State directory for hwclock (optional)

5.8.6.1. Purpose

   This directory contains the file /var/lib/hwclock/adjtime.

Rationale

   In FHS 2.1, this file was /etc/adjtime, but as hwclock updates
   it, that was obviously incorrect.

5.8.7. /var/lib/misc : Miscellaneous variable data

5.8.7.1. Purpose

   This directory contains variable data not placed in a
   subdirectory in /var/lib. An attempt should be made to use
   relatively unique names in this directory to avoid namespace
   conflicts. ^[42]

5.9. /var/lock : Lock files

5.9.1. Purpose

   Lock files should be stored within the /var/lock directory
   structure.

   Lock files for devices and other resources shared by multiple
   applications, such as the serial device lock files that were
   originally found in either /usr/spool/locks or /usr/spool/uucp,
   must now be stored in /var/lock. The naming convention which
   must be used is "LCK.." followed by the base name of the
   device. For example, to lock /dev/ttyS0 the file "LCK..ttyS0"
   would be created. ^[43]

   The format used for the contents of such lock files must be the
   HDB UUCP lock file format. The HDB format is to store the
   process identifier (PID) as a ten byte ASCII decimal number,
   with a trailing newline. For example, if process 1230 holds a
   lock file, it would contain the eleven characters: space,
   space, space, space, space, space, one, two, three, zero, and
   newline.

5.10. /var/log : Log files and directories

5.10.1. Purpose

   This directory contains miscellaneous log files. Most logs must
   be written to this directory or an appropriate subdirectory.

5.10.2. Specific Options

   The following files, or symbolic links to files, must be in
   /var/log, if the corresponding subsystem is installed:
   File     Description
   lastlog  record of last login of each user
   messages system messages from syslogd
   wtmp     record of all logins and logouts

5.11. /var/mail : User mailbox files (optional)

5.11.1. Purpose

   The mail spool must be accessible through /var/mail and the
   mail spool files must take the form <username>. ^[44]

   User mailbox files in this location must be stored in the
   standard UNIX mailbox format.

Rationale

   The logical location for this directory was changed from
   /var/spool/mail in order to bring FHS in-line with nearly every
   UNIX distribution. This change is important for
   inter-operability since a single /var/mail is often shared
   between multiple hosts and multiple UNIX distribution (despite
   NFS locking issues).

   It is important to note that there is no requirement to
   physically move the mail spool to this location. However,
   programs and header files must be changed to use /var/mail.

5.12. /var/opt : Variable data for /opt

5.12.1. Purpose

   Variable data of the packages in /opt must be installed in
   /var/opt/<subdir>, where <subdir> is the name of the subtree in
   /opt where the static data from an add-on software package is
   stored, except where superseded by another file in /etc. No
   structure is imposed on the internal arrangement of
   /var/opt/<subdir>.

Rationale

   Refer to the rationale for /opt.

5.13. /var/run : Run-time variable data

5.13.1. Purpose

   This directory was once intended for system information data
   describing the system since it was booted. These functions have
   been moved to /run; this directory exists to ensure
   compatibility with systems and software using an older version
   of this specification.

5.13.2. Requirements

   In general, the requirements for /run shall also apply to
   /var/run. It is valid to implement /var/run as a symlink to
   /run.

   The utmp file, which stores information about who is currently
   using the system, is located in this directory.

   Programs should not access both /var/run and /run directly,
   except to access /var/run/utmp. ^[45]

5.14. /var/spool : Application spool data

5.14.1. Purpose

   /var/spool contains data which is awaiting some kind of later
   processing. Data in /var/spool represents work to be done in
   the future (by a program, user, or administrator); often data
   is deleted after it has been processed. ^[46]

5.14.2. Specific Options

   The following directories, or symbolic links to directories,
   must be in /var/spool, if the corresponding subsystem is
   installed:
   Directory Description
   lpd       Printer spool directory (optional)
   mqueue    Outgoing mail queue (optional)
   news      News spool directory (optional)
   rwho      Rwhod files (optional)
   uucp      Spool directory for UUCP (optional)

5.14.3. /var/spool/lpd : Line-printer daemon print queues (optional)

5.14.3.1. Purpose

   The lock file for lpd, lpd.lock, must be placed in
   /var/spool/lpd. It is suggested that the lock file for each
   printer be placed in the spool directory for that specific
   printer and named lock.

5.14.3.2. Specific Options

   Directory Description
   printer   Spools for a specific printer (optional)

5.14.4. /var/spool/rwho : Rwhod files (optional)

5.14.4.1. Purpose

   This directory holds the rwhod information for other systems on
   the local net.

Rationale

   Some BSD releases use /var/rwho for this data; given its
   historical location in /var/spool on other systems and its
   approximate fit to the definition of `spooled' data, this
   location was deemed more appropriate.

5.15. /var/tmp : Temporary files preserved between system reboots

5.15.1. Purpose

   The /var/tmp directory is made available for programs that
   require temporary files or directories that are preserved
   between system reboots. Therefore, data stored in /var/tmp is
   more persistent than data in /tmp.

   Files and directories located in /var/tmp must not be deleted
   when the system is booted. Although data stored in /var/tmp is
   typically deleted in a site-specific manner, it is recommended
   that deletions occur at a less frequent interval than /tmp.

5.16. /var/yp : Network Information Service (NIS) database files
(optional)

5.16.1. Purpose

   Variable data for the Network Information Service (NIS),
   formerly known as the Sun Yellow Pages (YP), must be placed in
   this directory.

Rationale

   /var/yp is the standard directory for NIS (YP) data and is
   almost exclusively used in NIS documentation and systems. ^[47]
     __________________________________________________________

   ^[38] This standard does not currently incorporate the TeX
   Directory Structure (a document that describes the layout TeX
   files and directories), but it may be useful reading. It is
   located at ftp://ctan.tug.org/tex/

   ^[39] For example, /usr/share/man/man1/ls.1 is formatted into
   /var/cache/man/cat1/ls.1, and
   /usr/X11R6/man/<locale>/man3/XtClass.3x into
   /var/cache/man/X11R6/<locale>/cat3/XtClass.3x.

   ^[40] Data with exposed filesystem structure should be stored
   in /srv.

   ^[41] An important difference between this version of this
   standard and previous ones is that applications are now
   required to use a subdirectory of /var/lib.

   ^[42] This hierarchy should contain files stored in /var/db in
   current BSD releases. These include locate.database and
   mountdtab, and the kernel symbol database(s).

   ^[43] Then, anything wishing to use /dev/ttyS0 can read the
   lock file and act accordingly (all locks in /var/lock should be
   world-readable).

   ^[44] Note that /var/mail may be a symbolic link to another
   directory.

   ^[45] This is to prevent confusion about where transient files
   are located. In general, a program should use either /var/run
   or /run to access these files, not both.

   ^[46] UUCP lock files must be placed in /var/lock. See the
   above section on /var/lock.

   ^[47] NIS should not be confused with Sun NIS+, which uses a
   different directory, /var/nis.

Chapter 6. Operating System Specific Annex


   Table of Contents

   6.1. Linux

        6.1.1. / : Root directory
        6.1.2. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by
                all users)

        6.1.3. /dev : Devices and special files
        6.1.4. /etc : Host-specific system configuration
        6.1.5. /proc : Kernel and process information virtual
                filesystem

        6.1.6. /sbin : Essential system binaries
        6.1.7. /sys : Kernel and system information virtual
                filesystem

        6.1.8. /usr/include : Header files included by C programs
        6.1.9. /usr/src : Source code
        6.1.10. /var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs

   This section is for additional requirements and recommendations
   that only apply to a specific operating system. The material in
   this section should never conflict with the base standard.

6.1. Linux

   This is the annex for the Linux operating system.

6.1.1. / : Root directory


   On Linux systems, if the kernel is located in /, we recommend
   using the names vmlinux or vmlinuz, which have been used in
   recent Linux kernel source packages.

6.1.2. /bin : Essential user command binaries (for use by all users)


   Linux systems which require them place these additional files
   into /bin:
     * setserial

6.1.3. /dev : Devices and special files


   The following devices must exist under /dev.

   /dev/null
          All data written to this device is discarded. A read
          from this device will return an EOF condition.

   /dev/zero
          This device is a source of zeroed out data. All data
          written to this device is discarded. A read from this
          device will return as many bytes containing the value
          zero as was requested.

   /dev/tty
          This device is a synonym for the controlling terminal of
          a process. Once this device is opened, all reads and
          writes will behave as if the actual controlling terminal
          device had been opened.

Rationale

   Previous versions of the FHS had stricter requirements for
   /dev. Other devices may also exist in /dev. Device names may
   exist as symbolic links to other device nodes located in /dev
   or subdirectories of /dev. There is no requirement concerning
   major/minor number values.

6.1.4. /etc : Host-specific system configuration


   Linux systems which require them place these additional files
   into /etc.
     * lilo.conf

6.1.5. /proc : Kernel and process information virtual filesystem


   The proc filesystem is the de-facto standard Linux method for
   handling process and system information, rather than /dev/kmem
   and other similar methods. We strongly encourage this for the
   storage and retrieval of process information as well as other
   kernel and memory information.

6.1.6. /sbin : Essential system binaries


   Linux systems place commands relating to filesystem maintenance
   and boot loader management into /sbin.

   Optional files for /sbin:
     * Static binaries:
          + ldconfig
          + sln
          + ssync
       Static ln (sln) and static sync (ssync) are useful when
       things go wrong. The primary use of sln (to repair
       incorrect symlinks in /lib after a poorly orchestrated
       upgrade) is no longer a major concern now that the ldconfig
       program (usually located in /usr/sbin) exists and can act
       as a guiding hand in upgrading the dynamic libraries.
       Static sync is useful in some emergency situations. Note
       that these need not be statically linked versions of the
       standard ln and sync, but may be.
       The ldconfig binary is optional for /sbin since a site may
       choose to run ldconfig at boot time, rather than only when
       upgrading the shared libraries. (It's not clear whether or
       not it is advantageous to run ldconfig on each boot.) Even
       so, some people like ldconfig around for the following (all
       too common) situation:
         1. I've just removed /lib/<file>.
         2. I can't find out the name of the library because ls is
            dynamically linked, I'm using a shell that doesn't
            have ls built-in, and I don't know about using "echo
            *" as a replacement.
         3. I have a static sln, but I don't know what to call the
            link.
     * Miscellaneous:
          + ctrlaltdel
          + kbdrate
       So as to cope with the fact that some keyboards come up
       with such a high repeat rate as to be unusable, kbdrate may
       be installed in /sbin on some systems.
       Since the default action in the kernel for the Ctrl-Alt-Del
       key combination is an instant hard reboot, it is generally
       advisable to disable the behavior before mounting the root
       filesystem in read-write mode. Some init suites are able to
       disable Ctrl-Alt-Del, but others may require the ctrlaltdel
       program, which may be installed in /sbin on those systems.

6.1.7. /sys : Kernel and system information virtual filesystem
在sys文件系统中,显示了有关设备、驱动程序、一些内核功能的信息。其底层结构由目前使用的特定Linux Kernel确定,否则未指定。
「有关sysfs的一些资料」

6.1.8. /usr/include : Header files included by C programs


   These symbolic links are required if a C or C++ compiler is
   installed and only for systems not based on glibc.
    /usr/include/asm -> /usr/src/linux/include/asm-<arch>
    /usr/include/linux -> /usr/src/linux/include/linux

6.1.9. /usr/src : Source code


   For systems based on glibc, there are no specific guidelines
   for this directory. For systems based on Linux libc revisions
   prior to glibc, the following guidelines and rationale apply:

   The only source code that should be placed in a specific
   location is the Linux kernel source code. It is located in
   /usr/src/linux.

   If a C or C++ compiler is installed, but the complete Linux
   kernel source code is not installed, then the include files
   from the kernel source code must be located in these
   directories:
    /usr/src/linux/include/asm-<arch>
    /usr/src/linux/include/linux

   <arch> is the name of the system architecture.

Note

   /usr/src/linux may be a symbolic link to a kernel source code
   tree.

Rationale

   It is important that the kernel include files be located in
   /usr/src/linux and not in /usr/include so there are no problems
   when system administrators upgrade their kernel version for the
   first time.

6.1.10. /var/spool/cron : cron and at jobs


   This directory contains the variable data for the cron and at
   programs.

Chapter 7. Appendix


   Table of Contents

   7.1. The FHS mailing list
   7.2. Background of the FHS
   7.3. General Guidelines
   7.4. Scope
   7.5. Acknowledgments
   7.6. Contributors

7.1. The FHS mailing list

   The FHS mailing list is located at
   <fhs-discuss@lists.linuxfoundation.org> (subscription required
   as a spam limitation measure). Mailing list subscription
   information, archives, etc. are at
   https://lists.linux-foundation.org/mailman/listinfo/fhs-discuss

7.2. Background of the FHS

   The process of developing a standard filesystem hierarchy began
   in August 1993 with an effort to restructure the file and
   directory structure of Linux. The FSSTND, a filesystem
   hierarchy standard specific to the Linux operating system, was
   released on February 14, 1994. Subsequent revisions were
   released on October 9, 1994 and March 28, 1995.

   In early 1995, the goal of developing a more comprehensive
   version of FSSTND to address not only Linux, but other
   UNIX-like systems was adopted with the help of members of the
   BSD development community. As a result, a concerted effort was
   made to focus on issues that were general to UNIX-like systems.
   In recognition of this widening of scope, the name of the
   standard was changed to Filesystem Hierarchy Standard or FHS
   for short.

   Volunteers who have contributed extensively to this standard
   are listed at the end of this document. This standard
   represents a consensus view of those and other contributors.

   Thanks to Network Operations at the University of California at
   San Diego, and later to SourceForge, who allowed us to use
   their excellent mailing list servers during earlier phases of
   development.

7.3. General Guidelines

   Here are some of the guidelines that have been used in the
   development of this standard:
     * Solve technical problems while limiting transitional
       difficulties.
     * Make the specification reasonably stable.
     * Gain the approval of distributors, developers, and other
       decision-makers in relevant development groups and
       encourage their participation.
     * Provide a standard that is attractive to the implementors
       of different UNIX-like systems.

7.4. Scope

   This document specifies a standard filesystem hierarchy for FHS
   filesystems by specifying the location of files and
   directories, and the contents of some system files.

   This standard has been designed to be used by system
   integrators, package developers, and system administrators in
   the construction and maintenance of FHS compliant filesystems.
   It is primarily intended to be a reference and is not a
   tutorial on how to manage a conforming filesystem hierarchy.

   The FHS grew out of earlier work on FSSTND, a filesystem
   organization standard for the Linux operating system. It builds
   on FSSTND to address interoperability issues not just in the
   Linux community but in a wider arena including 4.4BSD-based
   operating systems. It incorporates lessons learned in the BSD
   world and elsewhere about multi-architecture support and the
   demands of heterogeneous networking.

   Although this standard is more comprehensive than previous
   attempts at filesystem hierarchy standardization, periodic
   updates may become necessary as requirements change in relation
   to emerging technology. It is also possible that better
   solutions to the problems addressed here will be discovered so
   that our solutions will no longer be the best possible
   solutions. Supplementary drafts may be released in addition to
   periodic updates to this document. However, a specific goal is
   backwards compatibility from one release of this document to
   the next.

   Comments related to this standard are welcome. Any comments or
   suggestions for changes may be directed to the FHS mailing
   list, or filed as bugs, or both. Typographical or grammatical
   comments should be filed as bugs. The bugtracker is at
   http://bugs.linuxfoundation.org - use the category FHS.

   Before sending mail to the mailing list it is requested that
   you first glance at the mailing list archives to avoid
   excessive re-discussion of old topics.

   Questions about how to interpret items in this document may
   occasionally arise. If you have need for a clarification,
   please contact the FHS mailing list. Since this standard
   represents a consensus of many participants, it is important to
   make certain that any interpretation also represents their
   collective opinion. For this reason it may not be possible to
   provide an immediate response unless the inquiry has been the
   subject of previous discussion.

7.5. Acknowledgments

   The developers of the FHS wish to thank the developers, system
   administrators, and users whose input was essential to this
   standard. We wish to thank each of the contributors who helped
   to write, compile, and compose this standard.

   The FHS Group also wishes to thank those Linux developers who
   supported the FSSTND, the predecessor to this standard. If they
   hadn't demonstrated that the FSSTND was beneficial, the FHS
   could never have evolved.

7.6. Contributors

   Brandon S. Allbery John A. Martin     Mike Sangrey
   Keith Bostic       Ian McCloghrie     David H. Silber
   Drew Eckhardt      Chris Metcalf      Thomas Sippel-Dau
   Rik Faith          Ian Murdock        Theodore Ts'o
   Karl Goetz         David C. Niemi     Stephen Tweedie
   Stephen Harris     Lennart Poettering Fred N. van Kempen
   Ian Jackson        Daniel Quinlan     Bernd Warken
   Andreas Jaeger     Eric S. Raymond    Mats Wichmann
   Jeff Licquia       Rusty Russell      Christopher Yeoh

参考文献


ToC

参考文献